Former rebel commanders, leaders of armed factions backed by Rwanda and Uganda for control of the resources of the Democratic Republic of Congo, but also former "government" generals and arms traffickers: some fifteen names were included in a list disclosed yesterday of those responsible for civilians massacres and violence in DR-Congo, to face punitive measures. The names are still few, but for the first time the international community has decided for targeted sanctions that include an international travel ban, a freeze of all assets abroad and any actions that could benefit them financially even indirectly. The list includes some rebel leaders already arrested in the eastern province of Ituri, where after over 50,000 dead and half a million displaced, n few months the United Nations peace mission in DR-Congo (MONUC) has managed to remove the leaderships of the main armed factions. Figures such as Thomas Lubanga, head of the Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC), 'Chief Kahwa', former president of another armed faction (PUSIC) or Jerome Kakwavu, leader of another armed group (UCD/FACP) named government army general - that for years headed armed groups responsible for civilian massacres while administrating the illegal trade of gold, coltan and other minerals - are accused of human rights violations and for the first time subject to individual and international sanctions. The list also includes two former army officers (removed) "at large", Jules Mutebusi and Laurent Nkunda, that in June 2004 headed a rebel group in the conquest of Bukavu, in South Kivu, resulting in around 80 civilian victims. The measure also includes "doctor" Ignace Murwanashy-Aka, residing in Germany, president of the FDLR (Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda), the Rwandan Hutu rebellion attributed acts of violence in east DR-Congo; he is involved - as indicated in the list drawn up by an apposite committee of the UN Security Council - in arms trafficking in violation of the embargo. Another name is Douglas Mpano, head of the "Great Lakes" airline, whose planes "were used to guarantee assistance to the rebel groups"; also a Ugandan is on the "black list", James Nyakuni, confirming the role of the nation in the arms trafficking in favour of the many Congolese rebel groups. The war (1998-2003) - caused mainly by the systematic pillaging of resources in DR-Congo - claimed some 2.5-3million victims, also from famine and disease. In east Congo insecurity is still rampant, despite the disarmament of 15,000 rebels in Ituri. The MONUC in fact cannot impede the ongoing violence in North and South Kivu.